What Is The Difference Between Cold Chamber Die Casting And Hot Chamber Die Casting？
As a widely used processing method, die casting is characterized by applying high pressure to the molten metal and quickly filling it into the cavity of the mold to form metal parts. This equipment, and its mold making, are relatively expensive and are more suitable for producing high-volume products.
Commonly used metals for die casting are aluminum, zinc, magnesium, copper, tin, lead and their alloys. In fact, different types of die casting techniques are used with different metals. Die casting techniques are divided into hot chamber die casting and cold chamber die casting. What is the difference between these two die casting technologies, Xiaobian will take you to understand them.
Hot Chamber Die Casting VS Cold Chamber Die Casting
What is Hot Chamber Die Casting?
Hot chamber die casting, also called gooseneck die casting, because the part of the injection gate is very similar to the gooseneck shape.
Its shot chamber and shot punch are immersed directly in a pool of molten metal, filling the mold under pressure. There is no air in the pressure chamber.
During the injection process, less gas enters, the molten metal flows in a closed pipe, there are fewer impurities in the oxide inclusions, the temperature fluctuation is small, and the quality of the molten metal is higher. Hot chamber die casting is suitable for the production of thin-walled parts.
Thin-walled parts refer to metal material parts with a wall thickness of less than 1mm. It is light in weight and compact in structure, making it easier to form an ideal shape during processing.
What is cold chamber die casting?
The biggest difference between cold chamber die casting and hot chamber die casting is that the shot chamber and punch are not immersed in the molten metal, but the molten metal is scooped into the shot chamber.
The earliest cold chamber die casting machine came out in 1920, which followed the injection method of the hot chamber die casting machine. The cold chamber die casting machine is also divided into vertical die casting and horizontal die casting according to the structure and arrangement of the pressure chamber.
The vertical die-casting mold is placed parallel to the ground and fed from the side. The horizontal die-casting machine is perpendicular to the ground and generally feeds from the bottom of the side mold.
How To Choose Metal Materials?
The methods of hot chamber die casting and cold chamber die casting are different, and the metal materials selected are also different.
|Physical properties of three commonly used alloys|
|tensile strength |
|Elastic modulus E |
In terms of hardness, zinc alloy>aluminum alloy>magnesium alloy
In terms of strength, zinc alloy>magnesium alloy>aluminum alloy
Material Selection For Hot Chamber Die Casting
Metal materials with low melting point are more suitable for hot chamber die casting, and small die castings are more suitable for hot chamber die casting, and the production efficiency is also higher.
Magnesium alloy: This should be a special one. It can be used for hot chamber die casting or cold chamber die casting. Depending on the thickness of the casting wall, magnesium alloys with small size, thin walls and complex shapes are suitable for hot chamber die casting. Wall thickness, relatively large small and medium parts, mass production is more suitable for cold chamber die casting.
First, magnesium alloy melt has low viscosity and good fluidity, which can quickly fill complex mold cavities
Second, the production efficiency can be 40% higher than that of aluminum alloy die castings, or even 50%, and can even reach twice that of die casting aluminum.
Third, compared with aluminum, it is even lighter in weight, good in quality, and not easy to age.
The above is how to choose metal materials for hot chamber die casting and cold chamber die casting.
Application Fields Of Die Casting Parts
Whether using hot chamber die casting or cold chamber die casting, high-precision parts can be cast to meet the needs of various industries. Its main application range is very wide, and it is even expanding its application range, such as the automotive industry, electric motors Manufacturing, computer, construction, hardware, shipbuilding, aerospace, lighting, and even the makeup industry, LOGO nameplates, perfume bottle caps, etc.
Advantages of Hot Chamber Die Casting and Cold Chamber Die Casting
Advantages of Hot Chamber Die Casting
Hot chamber die casting has many advantages. Its injection cylinder and pressure chamber are vertically distributed. The pressure chamber enters the molten metal in the crucible of the furnace. There is no air in the pressure chamber, so less gas enters. The molten metal is in a closed pipe. Flowing, there are fewer opportunities for oxidizing impurities, and the quality of the molten metal will be higher. This kind of hot chamber die casting is more used for the production of thin-walled die casting parts. Generally, the hot chamber die casting machine does not have a pressurized hydraulic cylinder, because the components of the pressure chamber need to be immersed in the molten metal for a long time, so it is more suitable for the pressure chamber. Components erode small parts such as zinc alloys.
- The production efficiency of hot chamber die casting is higher because no additional procedures such as pouring are required
- Easier to automate the process of die casting
- When filling the mold cavity, the molten metal flows in the closed channel, impurities are not easily involved, and the quality of die-casting parts is better
- Reduce metal waste, reduce costs, and be more environmentally friendly
Advantages of Cold Chamber Die Casting
Cold chamber die casting follows the injection method of hot chamber die casting machine, but its injection chamber and injection punch are not immersed in the molten metal, and the molten metal is poured into the injection chamber quantitatively. Cold chamber die casting can even produce denser die cast parts than hot chamber die casting. Different cold chamber die casting machines certainly have different advantages.
Vertical cold chamber die casting machine
- Fewer materials are used on the production site, and small machines account for the majority, reducing the use of factory area
- The pressure chamber is placed vertically, and the metal liquid enters the pressure chamber. During the injection process, less gas is involved and the quality of the parts is better.
Horizontal cold chamber die casting
- Suitable for die casting of various non-ferrous alloys
- More complete models
- Fewer production operations, more convenient production, high efficiency, and easier automation
Hot chamber die casting and cold chamber die casting have their own advantages, but hot chamber die casting has a higher degree of automation than cold chamber die casting, less material loss, and higher production efficiency than cold chamber die casting. However, the currently widely used aluminum alloy die-casting parts have a high melting point, so they can only be produced on a cold-chamber die-casting machine. They have their own points of attention. Aluminum alloy die castings are not suitable for heat treatment, and zinc alloy die castings are not suitable for surface spraying.
Process Flow Of Die Casting Machine
Hot chamber die casting
Hot-chamber die-casting injection and injection punch are immersed in molten metal. How does hot chamber die casting work?
The molten metal is poured into the pressure chamber first, and the injection punch moves down slowly to seal the side holes so that air cannot enter. The injection punch injects at high speed, pushes the molten metal, passes through the gooseneck, the nozzle, and the shunt, fills the mold from the inner gate, and solidifies into a casting. Raise the injection punch, and the molten metal from the nozzle and gooseneck flows back into the pouring pot. Finally, open the mold and take out the part.
Cold chamber die casting
Cold chamber die casting The shot chamber and punch are not immersed in molten metal, and molten metal is then scooped into the shot chamber. The furnace is only used for thermal insulation. As with hot chamber die casting, first close the mold, pour the molten metal into the pressure chamber, the upper punch sinks at a lower injection rate, enters the pressure chamber, and then changes to a higher injection rate to press down. The upper and lower punches extrude the molten metal to the nozzle at high speed; the molten metal is filled from the inner gate to the inner cavity of the mold from the nozzle, the flow divider, and the sprue. Complete casting.
Whether it is cold chamber die casting or hot chamber die casting, the whole machine must be well grounded, and the safety protection device cannot be simplified.
Pay attention to check whether the outer casing of the wire is damaged. If the wire is found to be damaged, it must be replaced immediately.
Before turning on the power, all junction boxes must be closed, and it is forbidden to touch electrical parts after turning on the power.
Operators must be strictly trained employees. When entering the die-casting workshop, they must wear protective equipment.
It is strictly forbidden to go to the product in the mold with bare hands, it is strictly forbidden to stand on the parting surface of the die-casting machine, and it is strictly forbidden to beat the various parts of the machine.
When shutting down, the pump must be stopped and the power supply must be turned off to prevent others from accidentally touching
It is strictly forbidden to rinse the die-casting machine with water to avoid rust and short circuit of the equipment.
Regarding cold chamber die casting and hot chamber die casting, it is clearer through the comparison below
|Hot Chamber Die Casting||Cold Chamber Die Casting|
|The molten metal is connected to the machine||Molten metal is introduced into the shot chamber from an external source|
|Suitable for metals with low melting points||Suitable for metals with high melting point|
|higher production efficiency||Production efficiency is low|
|Less pressure is required during die casting||Apply high pressure to molten metal|
|Short machine life||longer machine life|
This article was re-edited on May 31, 2023