What is Die Casting:Process, Application, Advantages
Before talking about the advantages of die casting, we need to understand what is die-casting. We are a die casting factory with a long history，In the past, our web page also displayed many die casting parts, but we only narrated around the product, and seldom introduced in detail what die casting is. Today, I will introduce We have a deep understanding of every process detail of die casting.
Die casting is a widely used metal casting process. Simply described, die casting is a process of rapidly filling molten metal into the cavity of a mold under a high pressure environment. Before die casting, it is necessary to design the mold, and the mold we are talking about is machined from a higher strength alloy. Manufactured molds and casting equipment are expensive, so the die casting process is more suitable for some mass-produced parts.
The history of die casting
The earliest die casting equipment can be traced back to 1838. Due to movable type printing molds, die casting equipment was invented; in 1849, Stokes in the UK obtained a patent for a hot-chamber die casting machine.
The wider range of alloys for die casting has made the die casting machine more likely to produce aluminum alloy die casting parts and magnesium alloy die casting parts; in 1952, the first vertical cold chamber die casting machine came out in the Soviet Union.
At present, the global die casting machine manufacturing industry is mainly distributed in China, Japan, Switzerland, Italy, Germany, the United States, etc., accounting for more than 90% of the global output. It is believed that the die casting industry will develop more and more rapidly.
Metal materials commonly used in die casting
Most of the die-casting parts we can see are made of zinc, copper, aluminum, magnesium, lead, tin and their alloys. Most of the die casting parts do not contain iron. The following are commonly used die casting alloy materials.
|metal material||Characteristics||Application field|
|Aluminum alloy||Low density, light weight, high strength, good electrical and thermal conductivity, good corrosion resistance and easier processing.||Spare parts with larger volume and heavier quality, such as beauty equipment, communication equipment, automobile industry, aviation industry, etc.|
|Zinc alloy||Good casting performance, compared with the other three alloys, zinc alloy is easier to cast, can cast various complex shapes, has good mechanical properties at room temperature and wear resistance.||Home furnishing, 3C products, architectural hardware, toys, beauty equipment, etc.|
|magnesium alloy||Low density, good specific performance, good thermal conductivity, good process performance, good heat dissipation, large elastic modulus, certain corrosion resistance, easy to recycle.||Kitchen appliances, small medical instruments, 3C products, small power tools|
|copper alloy||Good plasticity, strong toughness, heat resistance and corrosion resistance.||Plate collectors for heat exchangers, die-casting instruments, instrument parts, medical pliers, etc.|
Copper die casting
Aluminum die casting
Zinc die casting
Die casting process type
Regarding the type of die casting process, it is divided into hot chamber die casting and cold chamber die casting. There is also a detailed introduction to the die-casting process in the previous article. No more details here.
The following is simple An introduction to cold chamber die casting and hot chamber die casting.
Hot chamber die casting
Refers to the die-casting machine in which the injection chamber and the punch are immersed in molten metal, and the injection chamber is communicated with the die-casting gate through the gooseneck.
Hot-chamber die-casting is more suitable for metals with low melting points such as zinc alloys.
The advantages of hot-chamber die-casting are that the production process is simple, the efficiency is high, the metal consumption is low, and the process is stable.
Cold chamber die casting
The shot chamber and punch of cold chamber die casting are not immersed in the molten metal, but the molten metal is scooped into the shot chamber.
Cold chamber die casting is suitable for die casting of high melting point parts, such as aluminum alloys and other metal materials.
Regarding the type of die casting process, a detailed description has been made,and I will not elaborate too much here.
Process steps of die casting
Mold installation is not simply enough to place the mold. Before installation, you must fully understand the mold structure. After installation, you need to debug the mold, then clean and preheat the mold, and finally close the mold.
The molten metal is injected into the mold with high pressure, and the pressure range is about 10-175 MPa. After filling, wait for the die-casting parts to solidify.
When the mold is released, the push rod will push out the casting. Generally, there may be multiple mold cavities in the die casting mold, so that one mold can produce multiple castings, which greatly increases the production efficiency.
Finally, it is necessary to remove the excess metal in the injection chamber runner and runner. The removed metal can be melted down for recycling and reuse.
Surface treatment of die casting parts
Anodizing has good corrosion resistance, low cost, durable and non-conductive, seals parts, and has the reputation of “the most environmentally friendly paint”.
Electroplating is the process of plating other metal thin layers or alloys on the metal surface using the principle of electrolysis.
This surface process can prevent metal oxidation because of the metal film attached to the surface of the workpiece, which can improve wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and greatly increase the aesthetics.
According to different electroplating requirements, it has different functions
Silver plating: This should be a more commonly used plating material, which can improve the conductive contact resistance and improve signal transmission
Gold plating: same as silver, can improve electrical contact resistance, is the most stable and most expensive
Copper plating: As the bottom protection, it can improve the adhesion of the electroplating layer. Copper is easy to oxidize, so copper protection must be done.
Nickel Plating: Improves corrosion resistance and wear resistance.
This finish is one of the most popular in terms of contrast toughness and scratch resistance. And the most cost-effective.
Powder coatings are applied to various components and primers in the automotive industry, wheel trims, engine dampers, radiators, including handlebars, etc.
There are various ways of die-casting surface treatment, but the purpose is to improve certain properties of die casting parts.
Application of die casting
Die casting has a very wide range of applications, and even continues to expand its application range, such as the automotive industry, motor manufacturing, computers, architecture, hardware, shipbuilding, aerospace, lighting, and even the cosmetics industry, LOGO nameplates, perfume bottle caps, etc.
Advantages of die casting
As an important metal processing method, die casting has a wide range of applications and must have its advantages.
High production efficiency
Die-casting technology can produce a large number of products in a short period.
With automated equipment, a highly automated production process can be achieved, which greatly increases production efficiency.
In addition, the metal parts produced are of high precision and complexity because the die casting process can quickly fill the mold in the liquid state of the metal.
Less material waste
Compared with other metal processing methods, die casting is more economical in terms of raw materials.
This is because die casting uses solid metal in the molding process, which requires less raw material than other processing methods.
In addition, the metal can be recycled in the die casting process, which reduces costs and can reduce environmental impact.
The surface finish of the product is high
Die casting technology can achieve a bright and clean surface quality when manufacturing metal parts.
This is because the high pressure inside the die-casting mold ensures stable metal crystallization, which prevents the appearance of burrs and other surface defects.
This lays the foundation for the next stage of production of the part while improving the aesthetics and quality of the product.
The product has high strength
During the die casting process, the metal is molded into a tight mold space, resulting in high strength and load-bearing capacity. This not only improves the durability and efficiency of the product but also reduces the cost of material usage and transportation due to the light weight of the product.
The above four points are the advantages of die casting technology, which let us understand the importance and superiority of die casting technology.
Of course, although die casting technology has many advantages, it is not applicable in all cases. For different products, we need to choose according to their characteristics, taking into account factors such as cost, production volume, quality standards and manufacturing process, to select the most suitable production method.
Finally, we can see that in the development process of the modern manufacturing industry, die casting technology, as an important process method, has a wide range of applications and unlimited potential. We hope that the future in die casting technology will continue to promote and improve, to promote industrial development and improve people’s lives to contribute.
This article was re-edited on May 28, 2023